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Tell You About The Working Principle Of The Car Starter!

The control device of an automobile starter includes a solenoid switch, a starter relay, and an ignition start switch lamp component, wherein the electromagnetic switch is fabricated together at the starter.


One, electromagnetic switch


1. Electromagnetic switch structure features

The electromagnetic switch is mainly composed of an electromagnet mechanism and a motor switch. The electromagnet mechanism consists of a fixed iron core, a movable iron core, an attraction coil, and a holding coil. The fixed iron core is fixed and the movable iron core can move axially in the copper sleeve. A push rod is fixed at the front end of the movable iron core, a switch contact plate is installed at the front end of the push rod, and the rear part of the movable iron core is connected with the adjusting screw and the connecting pin and the shift fork. A reset spring is installed on the outside of the copper sleeve to reset the movable iron core and other movable parts. Electromagnetic switch wiring terminal arrangement as shown


2. The electromagnetic switch works

When the attracting coils and the holding coils are energized to produce the same magnetic flux direction, the electromagnetic attraction force thereof is superimposed on each other and can attract the moving iron core to move forward until the contact plate on the front end of the pushing rod connects the motor switch contact potential to the main motor circuit. .


When the attracting coil and the holding coil are energized, the electromagnetic force generated in the direction is opposite, the electromagnetic suction forces cancel each other. Under the action of the return spring, movable parts such as movable iron core are automatically reset, the contact plate is disconnected from the contact, and the main circuit of the motor is disconnected. .


Second, start the relay


The schematic diagram of the structure of the starter relay is shown in the upper left corner of the figure and consists of an electromagnet mechanism and a contact assembly. The coil is connected to the ignition switch terminal and the ground terminal "E" on the housing, the fixed contact is connected to the starter terminal "S", and the movable contact is connected to the battery terminal "BAT" via the contact arm and bracket. The starter relay's electric shock is a normally open contact. When the coil is energized, the relay core generates an electromagnetic force to close the contacts, thereby connecting the attraction control coil and the hold coil circuit of the relay.


Control circuit


The control circuit includes a starter relay control circuit and a starter electromagnetic switch control circuit.


The starter relay control circuit is controlled by the ignition switch, and the object to be controlled is the relay coil circuit. When the start switch of the ignition switch is turned on, current flows from the battery politician through the starter power terminal to the ammeter, and from the ammeter through the ignition switch, the relay coil returns to the negative battery. Thus, the relay core generates a strong electromagnetic suction force, which is the control circuit of the relay contact closure and the starter electromagnetic switch.


2. The main circuit


As shown by the arrow in the figure, after the electromagnetic switch is turned on, the attracting coil 3 and the holding coil 4 generate a strong electromagnetic attraction, and the main circuit of the starter is turned on. The circuit is:


The battery positive pole → the starter power supply terminal → electromagnetic switch → excitation winding → armature winding → ground → battery negative pole, then the starter generates electromagnetic torque and starts the engine.


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